The existence of the exam itself has an influence on coursebooks, on what the students are taught and upon what they are expected to know. This may or may not correspond to what the students actually need to know.
- Cheng, Liying, & Fox, Janna. (2013). Surveys of Ph.D. Thesis: Review of Doctoral Research in Language Assessment in Canada (2006-2011). Language Teaching, (4), 518-544.