Phoneme /ɑː/ in General American
In most of North America the father-bother merger is in effect. This means that IPA phoneme /ɒ/ sounds exactly like /ɑː/. This is the reason why "lot" and "stop" are mentioned in the first paragraph. Since many of the words with the phoneme /ɑː/ are spelled with the letter ‘o’, this phoneme is sometimes informally called “short o”. Moreover in Teflpedia (and also in dictionary.com) /ɒ/ means /ɒ,BrE ɑːAmE/.
Many people pronounce /ɑː/ and /ɑːr/ with different vowels (e.g. lodge as [lɑdʒ] and large as [lɑːrdʒ]); however since the difference is predictable there is no problem using the same symbol in both cases (e.g. /lɑːdʒ/ and /lɑːrdʒ/).
Some common words which practice the pronunciation of /ɑː/ include the following:
- with "a": calm - father
- with "ar": apart, are /ər, ɑːr/, aren't, argue /ˈɑːrɡjuː/, argument, arm, army, art, article, artist, bar, car, card, charge, charm, chart, dark, department, far, farm, garden, guard /ɡɑːrd/, guitar, hard, harm, large, march, mark, market, park, part, partner, party, regard, remark, sharp, smart, star, start, target /ˈtɑːrɡɪt/, yard
- /ɑː/ or /ɔː/: wallet - want - wash - wasp - watch
- /ɑː/ or /ʌ/: what
- with "o": body - bother - clock - cost - doctor - follow - got - holiday - hot - involve - job - lot - model - not - possible - probably - problem - shop - stop - top
Less common words
- with "a": iguana - llama - palm - piñata - wad - wander
- homophones: bomb - balm; knot - not;
/ɑː/ or /ɔː/
All these words have an /ɒ/ sound in Received Pronunciation. In North America they may sound /ɑː/ or /ɔː/.
- Boston - chocolate - gone - on - wash
/ɑːr/ or /ɔːr/
Main article: Pronunciation exercises: "orV" and "orrV"
- General American /ɑːr/: borrow - sorrow - sorry - tomorrow
- General American /ɔːr/: Florida - foreign - orange
Cot - caught merger
Main article: Cot-caught merger
In many parts of North America (about half the United States and nearly all of Canada) /ɑː/ and /ɔː/ sound the same. This is in addition to the father - bother merger, where /ɑː/ and /ɒ/ sound the same. This means that caught /ɔː/, cot /ɒ/, father /ɑː/ and bother /ɒ/ have all the same stressed vowel /ɑː/. In this accent /ɔː/ appears only followed by /r/ and the pronunciation is normally [oɚ] or [o], north is [noɚrθ] or [norθ] and glori is [gloriː].
Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1
In Latin America American English is taught (the United Kingdom is far away). Spanish speakers tend to pronounce /ɑː/ according to the spelling. They will pronounce "palm" as [pam] and "lot" as *.
- Wikipedia, Father-bother merger
- William Labov,The Organization of Dialect Diversity in North America, The o/oh merger [i.e. The /ɑː - ɔː/ merger].