IPA phoneme /d/
This phoneme is very consistently spelled "d", however the letter "d" is pronounced /t/ in the past tense of verbs: "guessed" /ɡest/.
/d/ is a voiced consonant; its unvoiced counterpart is IPA phoneme /t/. Bettwen vowels /t/ and /d/ may get neutralized as [ɾ] (a voiced consonant called alveolar flap). Then "butter" may be pronounced [ˈbʌɾər] and "ladder" may be pronounced [ˈlæɾər].
Some common words which practice the initial pronunciation of /d/ include the following:
- daisy - day - deal - deer - development - different - dinosaur - dolphin - down - dress - duck - during
Some common words which practice the mid-position pronunciation of /d/ include the following:
- already - body - condition - consider - idea - ladder - model - order - product - study - today - under
Some common words which practice the final position pronunciation of /d/ include the following:
- bad - bed - child - feed - find - God - good - hide - include - mood - need - old - provide - side - wood
/sd/ may be pronounced /st/ in some words: the /d/ is devoiced because /s/ is unvoiced. This happended centuries ago with past tense pronunciation.
- disdain /dɪsˈdeɪn, dɪˈsteɪn/
Normally double "d" is pronounced as a single /d/ (as in "address" or "middle"). In the following examples two /d/'s are pronounced.
- headdress - midday
Another example of /d.d/
Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1
Preconceived ideas and other interferences from L1 obviously interfere in many cases with how students perceive - and pronounce - sounds/words in English. The following section aims to point out some of the most typical difficulties teachers and students may encounter regarding pronunciation.
The main difficulty is the difference between /d/ and /ð/. See IPA phoneme /ð/.
- Decoding the letter D
- Past tense pronunciation
- Pronunciation exercises: /d/ vs /ð/
- Pronunciation exercises: /d/ vs /t/