IPA phoneme /dʒ/

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Ligature
(obsolete)

ʤ

judge /ʤʌʤ/

Strict IPA
 

d͡ʒ

judge /d͡ʒʌd͡ʒ/

Standard
 

judge /dʒʌdʒ/

In Received Pronunciation and in General American, the IPA phonetic symbol /dʒ/ corresponds to the initial consonant sound in words like "job", and "jet" and the final one in "page" and "change".

/dʒ/ is a voiced consonant; its unvoiced counterpart is IPA phoneme /tʃ/.

/dʒ/ is an affricate; its fricative counterpart is IPA phoneme /ʒ/.

Common words[edit]

IPA vowels
æ ɑː
trap father - start
e
dress face square
ɪ ɪə
kit fleece near
ɒ əʊ ɔː
lot goat taught
ʊ ʊə
foot goose mature
juː jʊə
cute cure
ʌ ə ɜː
strut comma nurse
ɔɪ
price mouth choice
IPA consonants
Normal sound: /b, d, f, g, h, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, z/
 ʃ  ŋ
show church sing
ʒ  j 
usual judge you
θ ð s
think that see
IPA Stress
ˈ Primary stress
hotel /həʊˈtel/
ˌ Secondary stress
understand
/ˌʌndərˈstænd/
IPA Syllabification
. nitrate /ˈnaɪ.treɪt/, night-rate /ˈnaɪt.reɪt/
Initial pronunciation of /dʒ/
  • as j: January - jam - Jamaica - James - Jane - Japan - jeans - job - John - join - joke - journey - July - jump - judge - June - just
  • as ge/gi/gy: gentleman - gender - gene - general - generate - generation - genetic - Germany - George - Georgia - gesture - giant - gym
Mid-position pronunciation of /dʒ/
  • as j: enjoy - injure - major - majority - object - project - reject - subject
  • as dj: adjust
  • as ge/gi/gy: agency - Algeria - Angela - apologiseBrE - apologize - Argentina - Belgium - biology - danger - Egypt - energy - engineer - imagine - Los Angeles - Niger - Nigeria - refrigerator - original - region - Roger - strategy - technology - urgent - Virginia
  • as dge: budget
  • Oddity: as ga: margarine /ˌmɑːrdʒəˈriːn/BrE /ˈmɑːrdʒərən/AmE
Final pronunciation of /dʒ/
  • as ge: advantage - age - average - change - charge - college - huge - image - language - large - manage - orange - page - range - stage
  • as dge: badge - edge - fridge - judge - knowledge

Homophones:

  • genes - jeans; Jim - gym;

/dʒ/ spelled with "d"[edit]

  • education /ˌedʒʊˈkeɪʃən/
  • gradual /ˈɡrædʒʊəl/
  • graduate (noun) /ˈɡrædʒʊət/
  • graduate (verb) /ˈɡrædʒʊeɪt/
  • individual /ˌɪndɪˈvɪdʒʊəl/
  • procedure /prəˈsiːdʒər/
  • soldier /ˈsəʊldʒər/

/d/ or /dʒ/[edit]

  • cordial (friendly) /ˈkɔːrdʒəl/AmE /ˈkɔːrdiːəl/BrE
  • fraudulent /ˈfrɔːdʒələnt/ AmE /ˈfrɔːdjələnt/BrE

/dʒ/ spelled with "ch"[edit]

  • sandwich: /ˈsænwɪtʃ, ˈsænwɪdʒ/
  • spinach: /ˈspɪnɪtʃ, ˈspɪnɪdʒ/
  • Greenwich /ˈgrɪnɪdʒ, ˈgrɪnɪtʃ, ˈgrenɪtʃ, ˈgrenɪdʒ/
  • Norwich /ˈnɒrɪdʒ, ˈnɒrɪtʃ/

/dʒ/ spelled with "t"[edit]

  • congratulations: /kənˌgrætʃəˈleɪʃənz/BrE AmE /kənˌgrædʒəˈleɪʃənz/AmE [1] The pronunciation with /dʒ/, even if it is recognized by Random House is regarded by some as informal or sloppy.[2]

Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1[edit]

Preconceived ideas and other interferences from L1 obviously interfere in many cases with how students perceive - and pronounce - sounds/words in English. The following sections aims to point out some of the most typical difficulties teachers and students may encounter regarding pronunciation.

Spanish[edit]

As /dʒ/ doesn't exist in Spanish, many Spanish speakers pronounce the initial "j" in words like "job" and "jet" like /j/, i.e. they do not distinguish very well between "yet" and "jet" or "yob" and "job". Other sounds that they may confuse this sound with are /tʃ/, a sound which does exist in Spanish, and two other sounds which don't: /ʃ/ or /ʒ/, especially as final sounds.

Unbelievably some Spanish speakers pronounce "g" as /h/ (actually [x]), just like in Spanish. It is not as uncommon as it should be to hear *[ɪnˈtelɪxənt] (from inteligente).

The sentence "güi don nid nou eduqueishon"[3] appears several times in Google, with several spellings for each word. You can find, for example, eduqueichon, edukeichon, edukeison,[4] eduqueiyon,[5] ediukeishon or ediuqueishon. Also, taking into account the actual accent of the song, educaichon or educaishon. However, the more "correct" transcription eyuqueichon at the time of writing appeared only once (in a Twitter message). Other combinations (such as ellukeishon or eyucaichon) were not present. This confirms that Spanish speakers don't know that education has a /dʒ/ sound.

Argentinian Spanish[edit]

Most Argentinians pronounce "ll" and "y" as /ʃ/, while some pronounce them like /dʒ/ or /ʒ/. In any case, they confuse these three sounds in any position, not just final.[6] Moreover, since standard pronunciation of Spanish "y" is similar to /j/ some students may also confuse /j/ and /ʃ/.[7] For Argentinians English /j/ is like Spanish "hi" as in "hielo" [ˈjelo].

Notes and references[edit]

  1. Dictionary.com, congratulation
  2. Charles Harrington Elster, The Big Book of Beastly Mispronunciations: The Complete Opinionated Guide for the Careful Speaker, 1999, page 104. Available in Google Books.
  3. In case you wondered, it means We don't need no education.
  4. "s" for /ʃ/ is used only by Spaniards.
  5. "y" for /ʃ/ is used by Argentinians and Uruguayans.
  6. Search for "Shack el Destripador" (Jack the Ripper) or "Shenifer Lopez".
  7. Search for "Nueva Shork" or "shu tub" (YouTube).

See also[edit]

External links[edit]