IPA phoneme /ɜː/

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Upton
 

əː

nurse /nəːrs/

Standard
 

ɜː

nurse /nɜːrs/

In English, both in Received Pronunciation and in General American, the IPA phonetic symbol /ɜː/ corresponds to the vowel sound in words like "nurse", "turn", "word" and "girl" (/nɜːrs, tɜːrn, wɜːrd/ and /gɜːrl/).

At the advice of Clive Upton the Concise Oxford Dictionary altered the British tradition and now uses /əː/ instead of /ɜː/; later Oxford Dictionaries Online followed the same convention.[1] Linguist Jack Windsor Lewis said "This has the advantage of reducing the total number of unfamiliar symbols to be assimilated by the general user". However his verdict is "as things are, it doesn't now seem worthwhile changing what we have".[2]

Merriam-
Webster

ɚ

nurse /nɚs/

American
dictionaries

ɝ

nurse /nɝs/

American
dictionaries

ɜ

nurse /nɜrs/

Some American dictionaries use /ɜ/ or /ɝ/ instead of /ɜː/. Merriam-Webster's Learner's Dictionary uses /ɚ/ both for /ər/ (unstressed) and /ɜːr/ (stressed). /ɝ/ and /ɚ/ are called r-colored vowels.

Silent /r/[edit]

In Received Pronunciation /ɜːr/ is pronounced [ɜː] or [əː] unless it is followed by a vowel, i.e. the "r" is normally silent unless it is followed by a vowel.

In General American the "r" is always pronounced, either as [ɜɹ], [ɝ] or [ɝ].

There are places in the United Kingdom where the "r" is pronounced, and places in North America where it is not pronounced.

Common words[edit]

IPA vowels
æ ɑː
trap father - start
e
dress face square
ɪ ɪə
kit fleece near
ɒ əʊ ɔː
lot goat taught
ʊ ʊə
foot goose mature
juː jʊə
cute cure
ʌ ə ɜː
strut comma nurse
ɔɪ
price mouth choice
IPA consonants
Normal sound: /b, d, f, g, h, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, z/
 ʃ  ŋ
show church sing
ʒ  j 
usual judge you
θ ð s
think that see
IPA Stress
ˈ Primary stress
hotel /həʊˈtel/
ˌ Secondary stress
understand
/ˌʌndərˈstænd/
IPA Syllabification
. nitrate /ˈnaɪ.treɪt/, night-rate /ˈnaɪt.reɪt/

Some common words containing /ɜ:/ include the following:

  • With "er": certain - concern - determine - her - nerve - perfect - person - service - term - verb - were
  • With "ear": early - earn - earth - heard - learn - search
  • With "ur": burn - hurt - murder - return - surface - Thursday - turn - urban
  • With "ir": bird - birthday - circle - dirty - firm - girl - shirt - sir - skirt - stir - third - thirsty - thirty
  • With "or": word - work - world - worse - worst - worth
  • Others: journalist - journey

Less common words[edit]

  • With "er": certify - fern - herb - herd - Mercury /ˈmɜːrkjəriː/ - merge - kerb - stern - thermal
  • With "ear": pearl
  • With "ur": curb - curly - fur - surgeon - urgent
  • With "ir": Birmingham /ˈbɜːrmɪŋəm/ - fir - flirt
  • With "or": attorney - worm
  • With "our": courteous
  • With "eur": connoisseur /ˌkɒnəˈsɜːr/ - entrepreneur /ˌɒntrəprəˈnɜːr/

Since in American English /ɜː/ is always followed by /r/, the pronunciation of hors d'oeuvre (appetizer) has an unwritten /r/: /ˌɔːr ˈdɜːrv/. In Received Pronunciation the /r/ is not pronounced. See [1] for a phonetic misspelling of hors d'oeuvre.

Spelling anomaly[edit]

  • colonel /ˈkɜːrnəl/

Homophones[edit]

birth - berth; colonel - kernel; earn - urn; fir - fur; heard - herd; tern - turn.

Variant pronunciations[edit]

  • deterent: /dɪˈterənt,BrE dɪˈtɜːrəntAmE/

/ɜː/ and /ʌ/[edit]

When Received Pronunciation has the sequence /ʌːrV/ (with V any vowel, as in hurry), General American has the sequence /ɜːrV/ (hurry rhymes with furry). This is called the hurry-furry merger.[3]

  • RP /ʌ/, GA /ɜː/: borough /ˈbʌrə,BrE ˈbɜːrəʊAmE/ - concurrence - concurrent - courage - currant - currency - current - hurry - nourish - occurrence - thorough /ˈθʌrə,BrE ˈθɜːrəʊAmE/ - worry
  • RP and GA /ɜː/: blurry - concurring - furry - occurring - preferring - referral - referring - stirring

Some curious contrasts[edit]

  • sir - circle - search - surgeon - sirloin - sermon - surplus - certain - survey.

Anticipated pronunciation difficulties depending on L1[edit]

Preconceived ideas and other interferences from L1 obviously interfere in many cases with how students perceive - and pronounce - sounds/words in English. The following sections aims to point out some of the most typical difficulties teachers and students may encounter regarding pronunciation.

Spanish[edit]

/ɜː/ is completely foreign to Spanish speakers.

In the case of cognates, they often pronounce them as in Spanish. For example, urgent pronounced as */ˈʊr.dʒənt/, virtual as */ˈvɪr.tʃwəl/ and perfect as */ˈper.fɪkt/.

In the case of native English words, the Spanish adaptations normally use a spelling pronunciation, as in "sterling" translated to esterlina or "flirt" translated to flirtear. This habit is often used when speaking English, such as pronouncing "bird" similar to "beard" or "word" similar to "ward".

References[edit]

  1. Oxford Dictionaries Online, Key to pronunciations (British and World English dictionary). See əː as in her.
  2. IPA vowel symbols for British English in dictionaries, Section 7. /əː/ versus /ɜː/.
  3. Wikipedia. English-language vowel changes before historic /r/ — Hurry-furry merger.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]